Two-thirds of Americans said they support signing an agreement that would legally require the United States and the rest of the world to reduce CO2 emissions, according to a New York Times/CBS News poll released before talks begin in Paris. For example, Fuller says, the U.S. should help fund a major climate project in the Caribbean, which would install weather stations that would map the topography of the seabed, to improve forecasts and help Caribbean countries use the data to better withstand the effects of climate change. But the Trump administration has cut back. Many U.S. cities, states and companies have also vowed to drastically reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the coming years. Twelve states and at least 165 U.S. cities plan to buy 100% of their electricity from renewable sources, according to climate monitoring group America`s Pledge. The Paris Agreement set out a framework for the introduction of clean energy and the abandonment of fossil fuels. Each country presented an action plan that outlined how it would achieve these goals. But without the United States, the balance between the parties that signed the Paris agreement shifts in China`s favor on key issues that have not yet been resolved. According to Michael Oppenheimer, a climatologist at Princeton University in New Jersey, China could resist demands for follow-up and detailed reports on how countries implement their policies and achieve their goals.
“It doesn`t bode well for the effectiveness of the Paris agreement,” he says. Congress never ratified the Kyoto Protocol, an extension of an international climate agreement, which was established in 1992, which essentially shook it. Some experts fear that the Paris agreement will happen in the same way. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S.
economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions.